Tuberous begonias are cultivated and not found wild. Begonia x corallina is a beautiful, easy-care flowering plant with large, "angel wing" shaped, dark green leaves, often with metallic silver specks. Begonia boliviensis is of special historical interest to gardeners, being one of the species used by John Seden in the production of the first hybrid tuberous begonia raised in England, B. This begonia is marketed as a rex begonia while being assigned a scientific name most often used for tuberous begonias. “Tuberous Begonias” is known as its scientific name and it belongs from “Begoniaceae” family.Its caring is easy and its flowers are variable in color like white, yellow, orange, pink, red and red shade in white. The common name of this plant in Spanish is Begonia de cera. 2-4 plus weeks depending on environment. Try these links: Begonia plant is an indoor and flowering plant, which blooms very beautiful flowers. Risposta preferita. This is safe in small amounts but potentially toxic in large quantities due to the prevalence of oxalic acid in the tissues.[21]. Place in a dry, cool storage area (a basement or garage) and allow the tubers to cure for several weeks. Scientific Name: Begonia x tuberosa Blooming Season: Spring, Late Spring, Summer, Autumn ... Five new tuberous begonia series debut from PanAmerican Seed, providing a wide selection of colours, including unique bicolours, along with some of the world’s largest blooms! Flower colors include white, pink or red. The right amount of light is often the key to success. This begonia is marketed as a rex begonia while being assigned a scientific name most often used for tuberous begonias. Wax begonias are outdoor bedding plants that have smooth leaves and an abundance of flowers, hence the scientific name semperflorens , which means always flowering. The Begonias are native to moist subtropical and tropical climates. Tubers can be stored for 20 weeks at 41F under low (2-3%) oxygen with improved sprouting the result after subsequent planting compared to those stored in air. What is a Tuberous Begonia? Scientific name of tuberous begonia: Begonia tuberhybrida. Tuberous begonias require well-drained soil and regular watering. Blooming Season : Summer, Late Summer. Mr. Thompson created this lovely Begonia from a cross between … Common Name: Tuberous Begonia, Tuberous Rooted Begonia Botanical Name: Begonia X tuberhybrida (B. tuberhybrida hybrids), bay-GO-nee-a tu-ber-HY-brid-a … Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. (If the top inch of soil is dry, it’s time to water a potted tuberous begonia. Begonia is a genus of perennial flowering plants in the family Begoniaceae.The genus contains more than 1,800 different plant species. Begonia is a genus of perennial flowering plants in the family Begoniaceae. Decorative Life: The scientific name of Wax Begonia is the botanical name or formal name. In cooler climates some species are cultivated outside in summertime for their bright colorful flowers, which have sepals but no petals. Avoid crowding and … Pertinenza. Scientific Name : Begonia x tuberosa Blooming Season : Summer, Autumn, Spring, Late Spring Plant Habit : Upright Spacing : 12 - 16" (30 - 41cm) Height : 14 - 20" (36 - 51cm) Width : 10 - 12" (25 - 30cm) Exposure : Shade, Partial Sun Grower Information : Seed supplied as: Pelleted. The term 'picotee' refers to edging on the petals that is in contrast to the color of the main petal if the colors blend. According to Creasy (1999), petals are edible. Native Introduced Native and Introduced. The following phylogenetic tree shows the relationships among sections of the genus Begonia.[3]. W. S. Hoover et al. In cooler climates some species are cultivated outside in summertime for their bright colorful flowers, which have sepals but no petals. The plants are monoecious, with unisexual male and female flowers occurring separately on the same plant; the male contains numerous stamens, and the female has a large inferior ovary and two to four branched or twisted stigmas. Scientific name is the name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN). Our Grower's Choice Subscription freshly picked and delivered to your door every month. Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report. Scientific Name: Begonia sp. Flowers, better to say, all plants have different names not only in different languages but in different regions too. The following is a selection of about 70 species, varieties and cultivars which currently hold the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:-[6]. They grow well in containers and make a good addition to your houseplant collection. As is often the case with hybrids, there are different varieties. They have an acidic, sour, lemon-like taste. Begonia (Tuberous Begonias) Latin Name Pronunciation: beg-own'ee-uh . In appearance it resembles rex begonias more than tuberous begonias. This very early and uniform-flowering series finishes 10 days faster than most tuberous begonias and features a tight, compact habit that allows for cost-effective production all the way from 4 and 6 … Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. Its scientific name, Begonia tuberhybrida, means they grow from a tuber (similar to a bulb) and its many varieties are hybrids. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. Plugs can be stored for 3 weeks in the dark (6 weeks in light) at 41F and subsequently grown into very acceptable plants and/or flowers. Scientific name is the name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN). A recent group of hybrids derived from this group is marketed as "Dragonwing" begonias; they are much larger both in leaf and in flower. Scientific Name : Begonia x tuberosa Blooming Season : Summer, Autumn, Spring, Late Spring Plant Habit : Upright Spacing : 12 - 16" (30 - 41cm) Height : 14 - 20" (36 - 51cm) Width : 10 - 12" (25 - 30cm) Exposure : Shade, Partial Sun Grower Information : Seed supplied as: Pelleted. Cut back most of the top of the plant, leaving the ball of roots and soil intact. Name Authority; Begonia tuberhybrida: Voss: Begonia tuberosa: hortulanorum: Begonia x tuberhybrida: Voss: Common names. Want more information? With 1,923 species (most of which are succulents) in the Begonia genus, the varieties can be divided into three different categories based on their root systems: tuberous, fibrous, and rhizomatous. An Easy, Thoughtful Gift!  Shop our Monthly Gift Programs, the Perfect Gift for Loved Ones Every Month. Read more growing tips in Begonias 101: A Field Guide to Planting, Care & Design in our curated guides to Tropical Plants 101. Begonia. Begonia socotrana from the island of Socotra, has produced many hybrids that flower in … Hardiness Degree : 32°C. Genus of about 1300 species and numerous cultivars of annuals, herbaceus perennials, shrubs and climbers, including some succulents and epiphytes. 1 decennio fa. The size of the flowers is the first thing you notice – each one can be as large as a dinner plate. The gold, purple, green or burgundy leaves are nearly as attractive as the flowers. Twinspur (Diascia barberae) Common Name: Twinspur Scientific Name: Diascia barberae Type: Perennial Water: Medium Soil PH: 6.1 – 7.8 Flower Color: Pink with yellow throat Special Characteristics: Showy flowers, container Hardiness Zone(s): 8 to 11 Height At Maturity: 6-12” Sun: Full sun Sub Type: Groundcover Thimbleweed is considered toxic because of its sap. Humidity and bright shade will make a tuberous begonia very happy. Native Introduced Native and Introduced. Its scientific name, Begonia tuberhybrida, means they grow from a tuber (similar to a bulb) and its many varieties are hybrids. GROWERS HINTS:? Most varieties available in garden centers or though catalogs are hybrids with complex parentage, but all share the same growing requirements. Take the following steps to save your potted tuberous begonia tubers: Remove plant from pot before hard frosts occur. – Poultice of crushed leaves for sore and irritated nipples. SCIENTIFIC NAME: Begonia Solenia. Begonia pearcei, also from South America. Here’s a little known fact: Tuberous begonia blossoms are edible. Non-Stop Begonias. The Begonias are native to moist subtropical and tropical climates. Some flowers are upright, while others loosely hang down. 11 risposte. Begonia boliviensis A.DC.. Synonyms. Other scientific names. The result is beautiful glossy foliage with an abundance of dainty, flowers in bright colors. 2004, Notes on the geography of South-East Asian Begonia and species diversity in montane forests, Phylogenetic Relationships of the Afro-Malagasy Members of the Large Genus, Accepted species Plants of the World Online, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Begonia&oldid=996182099, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, semperflorens (wax or fibrous rooted begonias), This page was last edited on 25 December 2020, at 00:25. Although most Begonia species are tropical or subtropical in origin, the Chinese species B. grandis is hardy to USDA hardiness zone 6 and is commonly known as the "hardy begonia". The tuberous begonia flowers come in all shapes, sizes and colors. Spacing : 10 - 12" (25 - 30cm) Height : 10 - 12" (25 - 30cm) Width : 10 - 12" (25 - 30cm) Exposure : Shade, Partial Sun. Terrestrial species are frequently rhizomatous or tuberous. Laferrière, Joseph E. 1990. Description: Begonias are succulent, flowering plants. Types of tuberous begonias include upright or trailing varieties with single, double or ruffled blooms in tropical shades of pink, yellow, orange, red and white. These begonias are typically grown as indoor plants, although they also do well in containers located in shady spots. Tuberous Begonia Fragrance. The American Begonia Society classifies begonias into several major groups: For the most part, these groups do not correspond to any formal taxonomic groupings or phylogeny, and many species and hybrids have characteristics of more than one group or do not fit well in any of them. Hypericum is named Aaron`s beard and … Common Name: Tuberous Begonia, Tuberous Rooted Begonia. The Plants Database includes the following 9 species of Begonia . COMMON NAME: Begonia Sparkle, Bonfire, and Encanto SCIENTIFIC NAME: Tuberous begonia x begonia boliviensis GROWERS HINTS: Pictures of Begonia Million Kisses, elegance is part of the Million Kisses group, There is Romance, Devotion, and Bon Bon along with Elegance. Many begonias will grow and flower year-round except for tuberous begonias, which usually have a dormant period. Common Name: Non-Stop begonias Scientific Name: Begonia x tuberhybrida Non-Stop Size: 8 to 10 inches high Flower Colors: red, orange, pink, yellow, rose, white, white with rose pink. It is a compact, bushy, fibrous-rooted plant that typically forms dense mounds to 15-18” tall and as wide of fleshy, semi-trailing stems. – Also used for peptic ulcer. This could be due to mixed parentage. ... Dahlia is a showy tuberous rooted perennials ... Read More >> Cactus varieties Cactus grows in extremely dry environment... Read More >> Fiberous types are low-growing, tender annuals used as bedding plants. Common Names. It is a compact, bushy, fibrous-rooted plant that typically forms dense mounds to 15-18” tall and as wide of fleshy, semi-trailing stems. ... Tuberous Begonia Begonia x tuberhybrida. Log in Sign up. The rotted areas are usually black. Tuberous Begonia SCIENTIFIC NAME:? Decorative Life: 2-4 plus weeks depending on environment. what are scientific names of flowers? Since it grows from 18 degrees to 25 degrees, in April to August is the optimum temperature for Japan. Begonia (Tuberosa Group) hybrids have shown some cold hardiness including the tuberous Begonia grandis (USDA zones 6-10). The stems grow up to 18 inches (46 cm) and from a tuberous rootstock. Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report. Most are forest understory plants and require bright shade; few will tolerate full sun, especially in warmer climates. GROWERS HINTS: When growing inside the house keep them a little on the dry side with good air circulation. Begonia boliviensis is a tuberous Begoniawith small, orange-red flowers. The flowers, produced in pairs or threes on short stems in the angles of the obliquely lanceolate leaves, are composed of 4 pointed segments. Terrestrial species in the wild are commonly upright-stemmed, rhizomatous, or tuberous. The genus is unusual in that species throughout the genus, even those coming from different continents, can frequently be hybridized with each other, and this has led to an enormous number of cultivars. Beefsteak begonia, Begonia feastii, is another example of a rhizomatous-rooted begonia. They are native to Mexico, Central and South America, Asia and South Africa. Kingdom Plantae Division Magnoliophyta Class Magnoliopsida Order It is good to know all facts About Tuberous Begonia. Remember Solenia want to be watered but they can get quite dry and be happy.Your Solenia begonia should be good for a year or maybe more. The common name of this plant in Spanish is Begonia. The cultivar 'Kimjongilia' is a floral emblem of North Korea. Scientific Classification. The tuberous begonia flowers come in all shapes, sizes and colors. Grower Information : Seed supplied as: Pelleted. Plant Habit : Mounded. The rotted areas are usually … DRAGOON WING RED is a compact F1 hybrid begonia that features angelwing-like, shiny green leaves and large drooping scarlet flowers. Tuberous begonias are tough annuals with double blossoms reminiscent of hardy camellia flowers. Most begonias can be grown outdoors year-round in subtropical or tropical climates, but in temperate climates, begonias are grown outdoors as annuals, or as house or greenhouse plants. A tuberous begonia can be overwintered – simply lift the tubers, shake off the soil, and store in a cool, dry place until planting time in spring. The estimated number of Begonia hybrids is between 1000 and 2000.. Begonia 'Black Mamba' is a rhizomatous Begonia created by Brad Thompson in 1993. Begonia plant is an indoor and flowering plant, which blooms very beautiful flowers. Here’s how to tell begonias apart. Family: Begoniaceae. Will generally do well in light levels at least bright enough to read a newspaper in comfort but more light (up to filtered full sunlight) would be better. The main purpose of having a scientific name is to have a same name accepted and used worldwide. The Begonias are native to moist subtropical and tropical climates. Begonia with 1400 species is one of the ten largest angiosperm genera. Its different species are known approximately 1795. begonias are native to tropical and subtropical and humid weather. Some flowers are upright, while others loosely hang down. The genus contains more than 1,800 different plant species. Search. Begonia X tuberhybrida (B. tuberhybrida hybrids), bay-GO-nee-a tu-ber-HY-brid-a. During this dormant period, the tubers can be stored in a cool, dry place. Begonia Grandis is part of the Begoniaceae family consisting of about 1500 different species according to the North Carolina State University. This could be due to mixed parentage. Common Name: Scientific Name. Color: Orange-red Bloom Time: Late spring through summer Description. Tuberous begonias, like … It flowers in Summer. Begonia (Tuberosa group) is a hybrid tuberous begonia encompassing 13 different types of summer flowering tender plants with colorful waxy petals. Create. Mature plants will reach up to 20" tall with an equal spread. DRAGOON WING RED is a compact F1 hybrid begonia that features angelwing-like, shiny green leaves and large drooping scarlet flowers. Begonian 57:175. Category: Flowers and Foliages. Some species are commonly grown indoors as ornamental houseplants in cooler climates. Start studying Flowers/Scientific Names. Good for : Hanging baskets, garden beds, containers . Tuberous begonia or Bulbs Begonia, scientific name; Begonia x tuberhybrida, is a non-hardy perennials of the department Begoniaceae, of Begonia genus. Begonia plant needs acidic soil and it must not be dry anytime. Stem rot causes the stalks to rot and collapse. Genus name honors Michael Begon (1638-1710), Governor of French Canada. Shares. Inland areas should use the more heat tolerant non-stop begonias, buy them as early in the spring as possible and plant lots of ferns, baby tears and other plants to increase humidity. One of the most interesting things about this plant is its natural desire to propagate. It is the 'wow' factor that people love about tuberous begonias (Begonia Tuberhybrida Hybrids). Genus name honors Michael Begon (1638-1710), Governor of French Canada. Free-flowering, Begonia 'Hanging Basket White' is a tuberous perennial boasting attractive cascades of extra-large, 2-5 in. It is garden variety was bred and crossed the South Andes of the bulb Begonia. In addition, some can be propagated from leaf cuttings or even sections of leaves, particularly the members of the rhizomatous and rex groups. Lv 7. As is often the case with hybrids, there are different varieties. Some species are commonly grown indoors as ornamental houseplants in cooler climates. across (5-12 cm), fully double, elegant snow-white flowers. A striking new species of Begonia, B. joshii , is described from Amazonas Region, Peru. The nomenclature of begonias can be very complex and confusing. Family: Begoniaceae Genus: Begonia Flower. Scientific Name. Blooming profusely from late spring to frost, they dangle with elegance from arching stems bearing green fleshy leaves adorned with serrated edges. Begonia boliviensis is a tuberous Begonia with small orange-red flowers. On the edibility of begonias. The popular wax begonia, Begonia semperflorens , is a fibrous rooted begonia. × sedenii.. Because of their sometimes showy flowers of white, pink, scarlet, or yellow color and often attractively marked leaves, many species and innumerable hybrids and cultivars are cultivated. Begonia tuberhybrida is a complex group of cultivars developed from hybridization of several Andean species such as B. boliviensis with pink flowers or B. pearcei with yellow flowers (Dewitte et al. Tuberous begonias are cultivated and not found wild. Although the Scientific name is Begonia Grandis, they are sometimes known as Hearty Begonia. With 1,831 species, Begonia is one of the largest genera of flowering plants. Tuberous begonia or Bulbs Begonia , scientific name; Begonia x tuberhybrida , is a non-hardy perennials of the department Begoniaceae , of Begonia genus. The variety of colours is also astounding – from delicate … Here’s a little known fact: Tuberous begonia blossoms are edible. Scientific Name : Begonia x tuberosa. Environment: Tuberous begonias do best in partial shade or filtered sunlight and sheltered from strong winds. Pink, Red, White, Yellow. Begonia. The stems from a tuberous root-stock, and attain a height up to 18 inches (46 cm). Then the vibrant Begonia Encanto. [1][2] The species are terrestrial (sometimes epiphytic) herbs or undershrubs, and occur in subtropical and tropical moist climates, in South and Central America, Africa, and southern Asia. If they do not, then the term 'marginata' is used, but sometimes these terms are used simultaneously. Most begonias are sour to the taste, and some people in some areas eat them. Begonia cultivars come in many different colors, such as yellow. Most begonias are easily propagated by division or from stem cuttings. Rieger Begonia. For each listing, learn the scientific name, water requirements, sun requirements and many other important flower info. Begonia: after Michel Begon, 1638-1710, promoter of botany at St. Domingo. Though they are actually perennials that grow from tubers, they are often grown as annuals. Search Google Appliance Enter the terms you wish to search for. In appearance it resembles rex begonias more than tuberous begonias. The underside of the leaf is usually a deep red. 2011; USDA, ARS 2012).Other parental Andean species used in hybridization include Begonia veitchii and B. davisi. READ NEXT. Some species are commonly grown indoors as ornamental houseplants in cooler climates. Begonia plant needs acidic soil and it must not be dry anytime. Tuberous Begonias are frost-tender plants that thrive where they receive bright light but little or no direct sun. Angel Wing Begonia. It is not necessary for all plants to be flowering. It has pink flowers that bloom in Summer. Color: Red, white, orange, or pink Bloom Time: Summer Description. Hybrid tuberous begonias raised in cultivation from Andean species. Scientific Name: Begonia tuberhybrida . Tuberous begonia species are native to tropical South America and southern Africa. The intensity of the color of the flowers and leaves depends upon how much light the plant is getting. The genus name Begonia was coined by Charles Plumier, a French patron of botany, and adopted by Linnaeus in 1753, to honor Michel Bégon, a former governor of the French colony of Saint-Domingue (now Haiti). Given an early start, they put on a glorious display all summer long. Tuberous begonias are frequently used as container plants. Scientific Name: Begonia x tuberosa Blooming Season: Autumn, Spring, Late Spring, Summer ... Tuberous begonia series provide a wide selection of colours, including unique bicolours, along with some of the world’s largest blooms! Leaf spots may be found on tuberous begonia. A fragrant plant is used to make perfumes and gives you a serene experience. Begonia x hiemalis is the scientific name for the Rieger begonia, which is a cross between tuberous and wax begonias. mejxu. In most species, the fruit is a winged capsule containing numerous minute seeds, although baccate fruits are also known. 53 terms. Tuberous begonias are grown for their magnificent flowers. The “X” in the botanical name means that this is a cross between at least two species in the same genus and in this case, crosses from many species. Begonia. Yes, you can grow tuberous begonias where it is hotter and drier but it will be much more difficult. Home|Floral Library|Tuberous Begonia – Begonia X tuberhybrida (B. tuberhybrida hybrids). Leaf spots may be found on tuberous begonia. Begonia. Since it grows from 18 degrees to 25 degrees, in April to August is the optimum temperature for Japan. What Are Most Frequent Causes Of Car Accidents? All of these Hybrids from the Begonia boliviensis […] Here's an extensive list and searchable directory of flowers that start with "H". Flower Color: Pink, Red, White, Yellow. It is garden variety was bred and crossed the South Andes of the bulb Begonia. Search Google Appliance Enter the terms you wish to search for. Flower shapes vary from camellia-like or carnation and differ in the number of petals (single, double), petal type … Tuberous begonias are frost-tender. Begonia tuberhybrida is a complex group of cultivars developed from hybridization of several Andean species such as B. boliviensis with pink flowers or B. pearcei with yellow flowers (Dewitte et al. They grow well in containers and can make a colorful addition to your houseplant collection. Illumination Salmon Pink Begonia Tuberous Scientific Name : Begonia x tuberhybrida pendula. It is interesting to know about Tuberous Begonia fragrance. Along with the scientific name of Begonia, know the scientific names of other plants too. The Plants Database includes the following 9 species of Begonia . Begonia grandis evansiana (Andrews.)Irmsch. Begonia Family: Begoniaceae. The typical form has large round leaves with a pale green reverse, or with red veins, and pale pink or white flowers and come up in spring from a … Begonia is a genus of perennial flowering plants in the family Begoniaceae. Tuberous Begonia Begonia x tuberhybrida... Schefflera/Octopus Tree Brassaia actinophylla. Tuberous begonias are pretty plants with double blossoms reminiscent of camellia flowers or even mini roses. Log in Sign up. Stem rot causes the stalks to rot and collapse. The genus contains more than 1,800 different plant species. Begonia argentinensis. In general, begonias require a well-drained growing medium that is neither constantly wet nor allowed to dry out completely. Common Name : Tuberous Begonia. Big, bold begonias Tuberous begonia series provide a wide selection of colours, including unique bicolours, … Flower Color: Tuberous begonias (‘Go Go … Family: Begoniaceae Genus: Begonia Flower. Tuberous Begonia, Tuberous Rooted Begonia, Botanical Name: The leaves, which are often large and variously marked or variegated, are usually asymmetric (unequal-sided). – The tuberous roots and fruits are anodyne, antiphlogistic and antispasmodic. Scientific Classification. [5] 'Non-Stop' refers to a camellia tuberous hybrid that under certain conditions will bloom 'non-stop' all year round. And even if they are, chances of them being fragrant are quite rare. Begonia species are terrestrial (sometimes epiphytic) herbs or undershrubs. Size of the bulb Begonia. [ 3 ]: Pink, red, White, Yellow snow-white flowers in... Require a well-drained growing medium that is neither constantly wet nor allowed to dry out completely few... 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Fragrant are quite rare most are forest understory plants and require bright shade ; few will tolerate full,! The optimum temperature for Japan is garden variety was bred and crossed the South Andes of the plant which... The following steps to save your potted tuberous Begonia blossoms are edible of about 1300 species and numerous of! Juice of the Begoniaceae family consisting of about 1500 different species according Creasy.: hortulanorum: Begonia x tuberhybrida ( B. tuberhybrida hybrids ), shiny green leaves large... Hanging clusters of delicate flowers in red, White, orange or Bloom! You a serene experience fragrant are quite rare … Free-flowering, Begonia semperflorens is! Are low-growing, tender annuals used as bedding plants outdoors example of rhizomatous-rooted! ( or wax begonias ) are frequently grown as indoor plants, although baccate fruits are also.... Annuals used as bedding plants that is neither constantly wet nor allowed dry... They are sometimes known as Hearty Begonia. [ 3 ] terms you wish to search.. Rieger Begonia, know the scientific name: Begonia x tuberhybrida pendula Begonia! Yogurts and as a rex Begonia while being assigned a scientific name species... Cultivars of annuals, herbaceus perennials, shrubs and climbers, including some succulents and epiphytes degrees 25... And fruits are anodyne, antiphlogistic and antispasmodic stalks to rot and collapse hybrids, there are different varieties Go. Cultivated outside in summertime for their bright colorful flowers, which usually have a same accepted! Of this plant in Spanish is Begonia. [ 3 ] ( 5-12 cm ) Go Go scientific... Medium that is neither constantly wet nor allowed to dry out completely to water a potted tuberous Begonia:. Are hybrids with complex parentage, but sometimes these terms are used simultaneously as bedding plants tuberous begonia scientific name result! Angelwing-Like, shiny green leaves and large drooping scarlet flowers usually a deep red the house keep them little. … ] Begonia ( tuberous begonias summer flowering tender plants with colorful waxy petals it is garden variety was and! Parental Andean species used in hybridization include Begonia veitchii and B. davisi epiphytes... Database includes the following 9 species of Begonia. [ 3 ] Late Spring to frost they...