Identification of the scale is important as it may aid in better control. Good cultural practices, such as proper fertilization, control of soil moisture, and providing good drainage (raised beds) will reduce the disease. They are typically found on the undersurfaces of leaves and look like small brownish or grayish bumps. Aboveground symptoms may include stunting of terminal growth, shortening of internodes, and interveinal chlorosis. Control: Light infestations of scale can be scraped off by hand or infested branches pruned out. Also blacksooty mold. The larvae then tunnel through the leaf between the upper and lower surfaces. Female tea scale covers are brown and boat-shaped. This is usually applied prior to new growth to kill both adults and their eggs. Prevention & Treatment: Remove and destroy badly spotted leaves, prune to improve air circulation and overcrowding, and clean up and destroy fallen leaves. These turn reddish-brown and finally black by fall. * Fletcher scale * Apple aphid on crabapples * Honeylocust spider mite. The bumps might look waxy, fuzzy or smooth. Woods with a higher rating are harder than woods with a lower rating. These products should be applied when mites are present and again in seven to 10 days. ON . Scale insects feed on shrubs' sap using their long, piercing mouthparts, causing twig and branch dieback and sometimes killing the plants. CONTROL . In South Carolina, the native holly leafminer (Phytomyza ilicicola) is the most common. Remove infected plant material and surrounding soil. American holly (I. opaca) cultivars are particularly susceptible to leafminer damage. These insects can secrete a waxy covering that protects them from the environmen… Updated: July 31, 2016. However, it is the resulting second generation of adults that cause the most damage, both in lawns, but also in nearby ornamentals, such as on certain types of hollies. Insecticidal soap sprays can provide control when applied before population numbers get too high. See Table 1 for examples of products containing the active ingredient. Infected roots are dark brown to black, usually starting at the root tips. Drought Damage: Holly leaves often turn yellow or brown during a sudden drought period. The symptoms of this disease and black root rot are similar. Common Soft Scales Wax scale – There are many species of wax scale that look similar (Figure 1). Always try less toxic alternative sprays first for the control of insect pests and diseases. Males are soft and white with a ridge down the back. Fungicides can be effective on a preventative basis only, and repeat applications are required. Scale insects generally look more like tiny growths on the foliage rather than actual bugs. The leaves of the holly tree are from 2 to 4 inches in length and vary in width, with some as narrow as ¾ inch and others being as wide as 1-1/2 inches. Infected roots are dark brown to black, usually starting at the root tips. Those ants will protect the source of their honeydew. See Table 1 for examples of products containing these active ingredients. Parasitic wasps and birds are natural predators of these pests. To avoid introducing these pathogens, purchase hollies with healthy roots and good foliage color. Scale insects are small, inconspicuous insects that use hair-like mouthparts to extract plant sap from leaves or branches. This fungus primarily affects the root system and reduces plant vigor. There are over 180 species of scale insects in Florida, but only a small percentage are important pests of ornamental plants (Dekle 1976; Hamon and Williams 1984). A second generation of eggs is laid, again in turfgrass, where the nymphs will feed. Typically, yellowing of the leaves (particularly at the shoot tips), early leaf drop, slowed plant growth, and twig dieback are seen at early stages of the disease. The shell also makes it difficult to use a pesticide because it has trouble reaching the insect inside. All recommendations are for South Carolina conditions and may not apply to other areas. Table 1. Fungicides containing mefenoxam can be applied in the home landscape, but will not cure an infected plant. Black Root Rot: Black root rot is caused by the fungus Thielaviopsis basicola. There can be up to five generations per year. Soft Touch Hollies give off a nice dark green color with light green new growth. Soft scale is covered with a protective waxy substance and is somewhat easier to kill than hard/armored scale. Florida red scale and purple scale attack citrus. Mites can be removed with a strong spray of water, if applied on a regular basis. Southern red mite adults are reddish brown and less than 1/50-inch long. Good spray coverage of the lower leaf surfaces is important, as most mites will feed there. The presence of many punctures can result in deformed leaves. Hatching occurs through much of the year rather than in discrete generations. All scales have piercing- ... (Figure 15), holly, privet, and pachysandra, causing yellow or white spotting on leaves. Its leaves are very small and slow growing with a soft texture. The Florida wax scale, Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock, is one of the most commonly encountered soft scales throughout the southern United States, where it is a serious pest of citrus and several ornamental plants, like holly. of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Clemson UniversityClyde S. Gorsuch, PhD, Emeritus Faculty, Entomology, Clemson University, Joey Williamson, PhD, HGIC Horticulture Extension Agent, Clemson University. Photo Credit: ©2002 Buglady Consulting The adult is about a ⅓-inch long and brown with two orangish-red stripes on the wings. Leafminer damage on American holly (Ilex opaca).Daniel Herms, The Ohio State University, www.forestryimages.org. Always choose locations that have good drainage for planting. Remove infected plants and replace with other shrubs or resistant holly species, such as Chinese holly (Ilex cornuta). Use raised beds in landscape plantings to provide good drainage. Some, such as ... Cottony Scale The bane of many holly growers, cottony camellia scale, Pulvinaria floccifera, is also called cottony taxus scale. Yellow spots appear on the leaves of American and English hollies in May. Yaupon holly (I. vomitoria) and American holly (I. opaca) are moderately resistant, while Japanese hollies (I. crenata) are very susceptible to black root rot. Because soft scales These products contain imidacloprid, which will move up and throughout the shrub and protect the holly from most insect damage for a year. Neem oil extract or botanical oil sprays may also reduce plant damage by repelling many insect pests. Indian wax scale is a type of soft scale. Foliar systemic insecticides labeled for use by the homeowner include acephate or spinosad can be sprayed during May for control of larvae within mines. Scale insects are small insects of the order Hemiptera, suborder Sternorrhyncha.Of dramatically variable appearance and extreme sexual dimorphism, they comprise the superfamily Coccoidea.Adult females typically have soft bodies and no limbs, and are concealed underneath domed scales, extruding quantities of wax for protection. REC, Lower Eastern Shore
Japanese hollies, particularly ‘Helleri’, are not very tolerant to low soil moisture, particularly for the first several years after planting. Its cottony egg sac and profuse honeydew production make cottony cushion scale easy to spot in the landscape. An oil spray should be applied before new growth begins to kill both over-wintering adults and eggs. Holly leaf damage from adult feeding can be leaf distortion, wilting, discoloration of younger leaves, blotches on older leaves, and leaf-drop. Apply all chemicals according to directions on the label. Japanese hollies (I. cenata) are very intolerant of poorly drained soils and are especially prone to root rot. Scales are unusual insects in appearance. They lay white cottony ovisacs (egg masses) on the undersides of leaves in May. The fungus thrives in areas with poor drainage and warm soils. Photo Credit: ©2006 Buglady Consulting Black sooty mold was found on these magnolia leaves. Cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi, can infest a number of woody ornamentals and certain crops ().Common hosts in California are citrus, cocculus, nandina, and pittosporum. Soft scales include black scale, brown soft scale, Kuno scale, lecanium scales, and tuliptree scale. Finally, ants farm soft scale insects. Due to product cost and for accurate application, homeowners may want to hire a licensed landscaper to apply products containing these fungicides. the . ), or botanical oils can help control many small insect pests and mites that affect garden and landscape plants. (2) Inspect plants frequently. The larvae are about 1/16-inch long. Control: In late summer or early fall when damage occurs, apply an insecticidal spray to control the adult feeding. Photo Credit: ©2005 Buglady Consulting Florida wax scale is found along the leaf veins of holly. For more information, contact the Clemson Extension Home & Garden Information Center. Do not apply horticultural oil sprays when the temperature is above 90 °F or to drought-stressed plants. OF SOF'r d C \ L.E S . Plant resistant varieties into nematode-free soils. Soft scales vary widely in color, size, and shape. It is also known as cottony taxus scale. Greedy scale (Hemiberlesia rapax) is an armored scale that has been reported on ‘East Palatka’ holly. Leaves may turn a bronze color and then drop. An insecticidal spray containing one of the following active ingredients will reduce damage by adult spittlebugs: acephate, bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, or permethrin. Nematodes: Root-knot (Meloidogyne), ring (Criconemoides), stunt (Tylenchorhynchus), sting (Belonolaimus), and spiral (Helicotylenchus) nematodes are seldom seen due to their microscopic size. The Florida wax scale, Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock, is one of the most commonly encountered soft scales throughout the southern United States, where it is a serious pest of citrus and several ornamental plants, like holly. The scale used in the table is pounds-force. If infestations are heavy and sooty mold is objectionable, spray horticultural oil in the dormant season. Southern Red Mite: Southern red mite (Oligonychus ilicis) is an important pest of hollies, especially I. crenata ‘Convexa’, a Japanese holly. If spraying is required, always spray late in the evening to reduce the direct impact on pollinating insects. 2 Armored scale secretes a hard shell over its body for protection from predators. REC, Western Maryland
Articles. Treat shrubs with dinotefuran or imidacloprid in the early spring for season-long protection. Phytophthora Root Rot: The water mold fungus, Phytophthora cinnamomi, causes root rot on hollies growing in very poorly drained sites or wet areas. The paths they follow turn yellowish brown and typically broaden into a blotch. As with all pesticides, read and follow all label instructions and precautions. Honeydew (a sticky substance produced by the scale insects as they feed) and sooty mold (a black fungus that grows on top of the honeydew, see photo below) are the primary problems caused by this insect. Informational table showing disease name, symptoms, pathogen/cause, and management of Holly diseases. See Table 1 for examples of products containing these active ingredients. Winter Damage: Symptoms of winter damage may be browning of leaves, marginal leaf scorch, defoliation, twig and limb death, and death of entire plants. Adult females are about 1/8 inch long, oval and yellowish tan with a brown margin. A 2% solution of horticulture oil may be sprayed when temperatures are between 45 and 90 °F. Drench = Add to water and pour around base of plant. Later, one or more limbs may wilt and die back to the main trunk, and a brown to black streak of dead tissue may extend from one area of rotted roots to the damaged limb. This causes a scalding, followed by invasion of secondary organisms and finally by scorching. Disease Syptoms Pathogen/Cause Management; Leaf scorch: Circular to irregular, tan spots appear in early spring or summer. Most parasitic nematodes feed by a stylet, sucking juices from plant cells. They are found mainly on twigs, although young scale also may be found on the foliage, typically on the underside of leaves along the leaf veins. It produces long, narrow and unavoidably obvious ovisacs on … This leaf scorching is caused by the presence of water or ice on the leaves at the time the sun is shining brightly. LINN ., AND . Horticultural oil sprays kill by suffocation and can provide excellent control of all scales. Prevention & Treatment: Hollies grown under stress are much more sensitive to root rot disease than are well-maintained, vigorous plants. There are two generations of two-lined spittlebugs in South Carolina, and this insect over-winters as eggs (generally laid in turfgrass). The following pesticides are labeled for use by homeowners against southern red mite: horticultural oil, bifenthrin, and acephate. Nymphs create the white, frothy spittlemass, which helps keep them moist and protects them from predators and parasites. Cottony taxus scale on yew. by . Scale insects are a diverse group of piercing-sucking pests (Hemiptera) commonly found on ornamental plants in landscapes and nurseries. Black Root Rot: Black root rot is caused by the fungus Thielaviopsis basicola. Coccus hesperidum. 1) Azalea bark scale, Eriococcus azalea A scale infestation is indicated by sooty mold on leaves, yellowing of leaves, and twig dieback. Plants with extensive root rot damage will usually decline and die during dry periods.Prevention & Tr… We embody the University's land-grant mission with a commitment to eliminate hunger, preserve our natural resources, improve quality of life, and empower the next generation through world-class education. Soft Scales (Coccidae) Over 60 species of soft scales occur in Florida. Spine Spot: Small, gray spots with purple halos are caused by the puncturing of the leaves by the spines of adjacent holly leaves. requirements for t h e … The cottony camellia scale is most commonly reported on holly in Kentucky, but it is also found on other hosts, including yew, euonymous, maple, and hydrangea. In years of heavy rainfall, berries as well as leaves are spotted. With severe infestations, webs may cover both leaf surfaces and branch tips. Fungicide drenches are not generally recommended for landscape use since infected plants cannot be cured. HOLLY . Wax scale can be 3-8mm in diameter and are white, cream, pink, or gray. Adults are relatively protected from insecticides by their waxy covering. Dinotefuran may move into shrubs more quickly than imidacloprid for faster pest control. (3) Prune heavily infested plant parts when possible. Keep plants watered during periods of drought. It is also reported on beautyberry, jasmine, mulberry, and hydrangea. Control: Naturally occurring predators of mites include various predatory mites, ladybird beetles, and other insects. Scale: Many scale species are pests of holly, especially Chinese holly cultivars (I. cornuta). Populations of southern red mites usually peak in spring and fall. As an alternative, a soil application of dinotefuran or imidacloprid is effective in controlling the larvae within the leaves. On extensively infested hosts, there is a general decline in plant health, with limb or branch death, and possibly plant death. The number of eggs per female range from 100-1000 and these hatch in 1 - 3 weeks. Always select hollies that are adapted to the local climate and soil conditions. Figure 11. Spray late in the day and when no rainfall is expected within 24 hours. The eggs hatch in about four days. These hollies are a no maintenance shrub with a nice soft foliage unlike other hollies. This information is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement of brand names or registered trademarks by the Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service is implied, nor is any discrimination intended by the exclusion of products or manufacturers not named. Spray with horticultural oil in the spring after the plants have begun growing and the danger of cold weather has passed. The nymph (immature stage) is white or yellowish and without wings. Repeat this application after 10 days to better control the crawlers, adults, and eggs by smothering them. Inspect your holly bush to confirm that a soft scale infestation is causing the black sooty mold. Often, the root system will continue to disintegrate until the plant dies. The Soft Touch Holly shrub is a great all around shrub for your landscape design. Control: With a light infestation, homeowners can handpick and destroy infested leaves. The Janka scale is used to determine the relative hardness of particular domestic or exotic wood species. See Table 1 for examples of products containing these active ingredients. Adult females are about 1/8 inch long, oval and yellowish tan with a brown margin. Pest description and damage Brown soft scale are yellowish to dark brown insects (adults are usually darker). Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service offers its programs to people of all ages, regardless of race, color, gender, religion, national origin, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, gender identity, marital or family status and is an equal opportunity employer. Check other nearby woody plants for infestations. Use pesticides only according to the directions on the label. The newly hatched crawlers move about the plant for a few days to several weeks before attaching to feed. They are almost inactive during the heat of midsummer. The creamy colored 'bumps' on the stems of your holly tree are most likely Indian Wax Scale. Insecticides will often kill the naturally occurring predators of scale. Additionally, there are less toxic spray fungicides that contain sulfur or copper soap, and biological control sprays for plant diseases that contain Bacillus subtilis. Indian wax scale (Ceroplases ceriferus) is a soft scale that may infest Chinese and Yaupon hollies. The adult female inserts eggs into young leaves through puncture wounds made by her ovipositor. Soft scales (Figure 6) also secrete a waxy covering, but it is attached to their bodies. Tea scale likes the undersides of camellia and holly leaves. During the growing season use horticultural oil or insecticidal soap to conserve beneficials. Look on the stems and beneath the leaves for rounded, black or brown bumps no larger than 1/4 inch long. Promptly dispose of prunings. Aboveground symptoms may include stunting of terminal growth, shortening of internodes, and interveinal chlorosis. Avoid the use of spray pesticides (both insecticides and fungicides), as well as soil-applied, systemic insecticides unless absolutely necessary. Save For Later Print. These products are either granules or liquids that are applied around the base of the hollies. Crawlers hatch through June and remain on the undersides of the leaves through winter. Holly pit scale (Asterolecanium puteanum) is a pest on American, ‘Burford’, Japanese, and Yaupon hollies. If this document didn’t answer your questions, please contact HGIC at firstname.lastname@example.org or 1-888-656-9988. There's also an oleander scale. Field Key to Identification of Scale Insects on Holly (Ilex spp.) Monitor the crawler emergence with sticky cards, double-faced tape wrapped around a branch, or by putting an infested shoot or leaf into a baggie and watching for crawler movement. Holly Tree Pests. Central Maryland
Sprays will last about 10 – 14 days. OREGON STATE COLLEGE . Marjan Kluepfel, Former HGIC Horticulture Information Specialist, Clemson UniversityJanet McLeod Scott, Former Horticulture Information Specialist, Clemson UniversityJames H. Blake, EdD, Extension Associate/Adjunct Professor, Dept. It is also reported on beautyberry, jasmine, mulberry, and hydrangea. It is important that you monitor their development carefully and regularly in order to determine the optimum time to spray. Tea scale – Tea scale is most common on the underside of camellia and holly leaves. Adults, eggs, and cast skins (white) of southern red mite (Oligonychus ilicis).John A. Weidhass, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, www.forestryimages.org. Scale … Symptoms of feeding include light yellow speckling on leaves. Using sucking mouthparts, they feed on the undersides of leaves, where their fine webbing is often seen. Horticultural Oil Precautions Test the spray on a leaf or two. Florida wax scale (Ceroplastes floridensis) on Chinese holly (Ilex cornuta).United States National Collection of Scale Insects Photographs Archive, USDA Agricultural Research Service, www.forestryimages.org. Follow the product label for rate and application directions. They injure plants by direct feeding or wounding tissue, making an entrance for other disease organisms. Follow all directions, precautions and restrictions that are listed. However, it is very important to always read and follow the label directions on each product. High soil moisture and low soil temperatures favor development of black root rot. Soft Scales Found on Trees and Shrubs - The following are examples of commonly found scale insects that infest deciduous, broadleaf, and evergreen plants. A soil drench with dinotefuran applied to the soil will control both soft and armored scales. Plants with extensive root rot damage will usually decline and die during dry periods. 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